There are two basic types of standards available in the industry - de facto and de jure. De Facto standards may also be know as market driven. Standards that are considered market driven or de facto are those that have received wide acceptance by the industry. Some examples of de facto standards include, Microsoft Windows that is widely accepted as a client operating system and is most often shipped with computers from the factory. PDF (Portable Document Format) and TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) are also considered de facto standards because they are widely used for transmitting doucmens in non-editable, non-revisable format. De Facto standards result from many organizations adopting the use of them.
We also have de jure or formal standards that are developed by accredited standards organizations using rigid procedures that may periodically be audited. Formal standards development is based on openness and due process. Openness means that there are no obstacles to prevent an individual with a direct and material interest from expressing a viewpoint regardless of whether it is an affirmation or an objection to the discussion. This means that participation in the standards development activity is open to all persons. Due process ensures equity and fair play in the development process. The concepts of openness and due process are also found in the standards development efforts lead by coalitions and consortiums.